Milk is a valuable nutritious food that has a short shelf-life and requires careful handling. Milk is highly perishable because it is an excellent medium for the growth of microorganisms – particularly bacterial pathogens – that can cause spoilage and diseases in consumers. Milk processing allows the preservation of milk for days, weeks or months and helps to reduce food-borne illness.
The usable life of milk can be extended for several days through techniques such as cooling (which is the factor most likely to influence the quality of raw milk) or fermentation. Pasteurization is a heat treatment process that extends the usable life of milk and reduces the numbers of possible pathogenic microorganisms to levels at which they do not represent a significant health hazard. Milk can be processed further to convert it into high-value, concentrated and easily transportable dairy products with long shelf-lives, such as butter, cheese and ghee.
Processing of dairy products gives small-scale dairy producers higher cash incomes than selling raw milk and offers better opportunities to reach regional and urban markets. Milk processing can also help to deal with seasonal fluctuations in milk supply. The transformation of raw milk into processed milk and products can benefit entire communities by generating off-farm jobs in milk collection, transportation, processing and marketing.
Different milk heating techniques: batch and flow, thermisation, low and high heat pasteurisation, sterilisation, ultra-high temperature heat treatment
Operation of a flow plate heat exchanger: pressure and temperature adjustment
Cleaning in place
Cream separation: operation, creaming percentage, cleaning
Milk fat standardisation: calculations and interpretations
Homogenisation of milk fat: operation and effect in milk products
Processing steps and equipment of the manufacture of:
fresh pasteurised milk
sweet milk products (flavoured, custard, porridges, desserts)
fresh fermented milk products: sour milk, different types of yoghurt (set, stir, drink, probiotic) sour cream
butter and butter milk
ice cream (incl. frozen yoghurt)
Quality analyses of dairy products: chemical, microbiological and organoleptic/sensorial, recording and interpretation of the results
Determination of yields and losses
Cleaning and disinfection procedures, application possibilities of the different chemical agents; do’s and don’ts
Hygiene control in the plant
Auxiliaries and maintenance of processing equipment